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In this article, Problems faced by labour in agriculture are presented. I mainly talk about the labour that is working in agriculture. Agriculture is the primary sector of Income for people in rural areas. It is the most important sector in the economy. food is a need of our human society and it is our responsibility to protect the benefit of labourers who provide food to us because it is the only source of income for labourers in agriculture.

It is the only sector which is less developed than other sectors in the economy. In this sector, labour faces many problems. we will discuss their problems, causes and then the solution. The work of agricultural labour involves cultivating the soil and growing or harvesting any agricultural crop. Labour is the most important input in increasing production in traditional agriculture. Agriculture labourers are the poorest section of society. An Agriculture worker is unskilled and unorganised. 

Agriculture Labour Types:-

Small and Marginal Framers:- Small and marginal Farmers in India work small parcels of land. They make up a large portion of the country’s agricultural labour force. These people frequently deal with issues that affect their production and income, such as restricted access to modern agriculture techniques, loans and resources.

Landless labourers:- In India, a sizable fraction of agriculture labourers lack land. These people labour on other people's farms, where they are subject to low pay, unstable employment, and little social security. Their lack of land ownership makes them more vulnerable in the agricultural economy. 

Seasonal labourers:- A significant number of seasonal labourers are employed in India due to the seasonal nature of agricultural activity. These people contribute to economic volatility by working during specific agriculture seasons and frequently being unemployed during the off-season.

Migrant Labourers:- In India, migration is a common occurrence among those employed in agriculture.  In pursuit of work, labourers relocate from rural to metropolitan areas between regions. They frequently face obstacles like exploitation, poor living conditions and a lack of social assistance.

Problem Facing India's Agricultural Labor:-

Poor Pay:- Due to the labour-intensive nature of their jobs, Indian agricultural labourers frequently receive insufficient pay. This lowers these people's general level of living and adds to poverty and limited access to education.

Lack of Job Security:- A common problem, job uncertainty is especially felt by seasonal and migrant workers. The financial instability that these workers experience is exacerbated by the uncertainty of employment during off-seasons or as a result of irregular weather patterns.

Unfavourable Working Conditions:- Agricultural workers frequently work in difficult settings, where they are subjected to harsh weather, insufficient safety precautions, and lengthy workdays. This affects not only their physical health but also increases the risk of health problems and occupational dangers.

Restricted Education Access:- A large portion of India's agricultural labour force is illiterate. This restricts their options for pursuing different job routes, which impedes social mobility and keeps agricultural labour in the family for generations to come.

Health Risks:- Agricultural labourers are at significant risk for serious health problems due to exposure to pesticides, agrochemicals, and unhygienic working conditions. These workers' health issues are made worse by the lack of easily available healthcare services.


Social Security Measures:- By implementing retirement benefits and insurance, social security measures can give agricultural labourers a safety net. This covers procedures for dealing with problems related to unemployment in off-seasons and unexpected events.

Better Working Conditions:- Improving working conditions entails putting safety laws into effect, giving employees the comforts, they need at work, and utilizing technology to enable mechanized farming. Infrastructure improvements can help to create a safer and more comfortable workplace.

Policies of the Government:-

Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act, or MGNREGA, seeks to give every rural household at least 100 days of guaranteed pay work per fiscal year. Although it has improved employment in rural areas, there are still issues with implementation, late payments, and the requirement for further monitoring.

Pradhan Mantri Kisan Samman Nidhi, or PM-KISAN, is a direct income support program for farmers that offers financial aid to qualified participants. Landless labourers may not immediately profit from this plan, even if land-owning farmers stand to gain from it. This emphasizes the necessity for focused measures that address their unique issues.

The National Rural Livelihood Mission (NRLM) seeks to enhance rural households' standard of living and encourage self-employment. Programs that are integrated into NRLM and explicitly target agricultural labourers might meet their particular needs.


In conclusion, the issues that Indian agricultural labourers deal with are complex and have deep roots, necessitating a team effort to find a holistic solution. Targeted interventions are required due to the diversified labour force in the agricultural industry as well as issues including low pay, unstable employment, unfavourable working conditions, restricted access to education, and health concerns.

While some of these issues are addressed by current government programs including MGNREGA, PM-KISAN, and NRLM, ongoing assessment and improvement are still required. Developing sustainable solutions also requires the adoption of new regulations and the active participation of stakeholders, such as governmental organizations, businesses engaged in agriculture, and civil society. Enhancing the working conditions of farm labourers is essential for economic fairness as well.


1. What are the primary financial obstacles that labourers in agriculture must overcome?

Ans: Because agricultural workers frequently face poor pay, unstable employment, and restricted access to financial resources, economic stability is a major concern.

2. What effects do poor working conditions have on labourers in agriculture?

Ans: Poor working conditions impact workers' well-being and the effectiveness of agricultural operations by causing health problems, decreased output, and general discontent.

3. What social issues affect labourers in agriculture?

Ans: Lack of social support networks, discrimination, and restricted access to healthcare and education are examples of social problems that obstruct the growth of individuals and communities.

4. How might the lives of agricultural labourers be improved by addressing these issues?

Ans: Comprehensive approaches are needed to address these issues, such as equitable wage laws, better working conditions, increased access to healthcare and education, and the development of welcoming social environments in rural areas. 

5. What measures can be taken by governments to aid those who work in agriculture?

Ans: Laws guaranteeing equitable pay, workplace safety regulations, and social welfare initiatives can be put into place by governments. Furthermore, putting money into education and career training can prepare workers for a variety of prospects.

By responding to these frequently asked questions, we hope to advance a thorough comprehension of the difficulties encountered by agricultural labourers and to inspire initiatives that lead to constructive change in the industry.


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