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The Crucial Role of Internal Complaints Committee (ICC) in Addressing Sexual Harassment Cases

This article has been written by Abhishek Sharma, student of Rajiv Gandhi National Law University, Patiala during internship under Legal Specs.


The prevalence of sexual harassment in workplaces has necessitated the implementation of laws and regulations to protect employees. In India, the Prevention of Sexual Harassment (POSH) Act[1], 2013, mandates the formation of Internal Complaints Committees (ICCs) in organisations. The ICC plays a pivotal role in addressing and redressing cases of sexual harassment, ensuring a safe and respectful work environment. This blog explores the significance of ICCs, their composition, functions, and the impact they have on combating workplace sexual harassment.


Internal Complaint Committees (ICCs) play a crucial role in addressing and resolving complaints of sexual harassment within organizations. Their primary responsibility is to create a safe and inclusive work environment where employees can report incidents of sexual harassment without fear of retaliation. Here is a closer look at the role of ICCs:

Receiving Complaints: ICCs serve as the designated body to receive complaints of sexual harassment from employees. They provide a safe and confidential platform for individuals to report incidents, ensuring that complaints are taken seriously and addressed promptly.

Conducting Investigations: ICCs are responsible for conducting impartial investigations into the complaints received. This involves gathering evidence, interviewing relevant parties, and ensuring a fair and transparent inquiry process.

Ensuring Confidentiality: ICCs ensure the confidentiality and privacy of all parties involved in the complaint, including the complainant, witnesses, and alleged harassers. This is crucial to protect the rights and interests of those involved and to encourage open reporting.

Offering Support: ICCs provide support and guidance to complainants throughout the complaint process. They offer information about available resources, counselling services, and legal avenues, empowering individuals to make informed decisions.

Implementing Preventive Measures: ICCs play a proactive role in preventing sexual harassment by implementing preventive measures. This includes conducting awareness campaigns, training programs, and workshops to educate employees about their rights, responsibilities, and the organization's policies on sexual harassment.

Recommending Actions: Based on the investigation findings, ICCs make recommendations to the organisation regarding appropriate actions to be taken. This may include disciplinary measures against the harasser, such as warnings, suspensions, or termination, depending on the severity of the offence.

Reporting to the Employer: ICCs provide periodic reports to the employer, detailing the number of complaints received, actions taken, and recommendations for policy improvements. This promotes transparency and accountability within the organisation.


The ICC comprises members[2] appointed by the organisation, including both internal and external representatives. These members should possess expertise in dealing with matters related to sexual harassment. Their primary responsibilities include:

a. Receiving and addressing complaints: ICCs play a pivotal role in receiving complaints, conducting investigations, and taking appropriate actions to address allegations of sexual harassment.

b. Ensuring confidentiality and privacy: The ICC ensures that the confidentiality of complainants, witnesses, and alleged harassers is maintained throughout the inquiry process, safeguarding their interests.

c. Conducting fair investigations: ICC members are responsible for conducting impartial investigations, interviewing relevant parties, collecting evidence, and reaching conclusions based on the evidence presented.

d. Implementing preventive measures: ICCs are tasked with developing and implementing preventive measures, such as awareness campaigns, training programs, and policy reviews, to create a safe and inclusive work environment.

e. Recommending disciplinary actions: If the allegations are substantiated, the ICC recommends suitable disciplinary actions against the harasser, which may include warnings, transfers, suspensions, or termination, depending on the severity of the offence.


The ICC holds various responsibilities and powers granted by the POSH Act. This section explores the key functions of an ICC, including receiving complaints, conducting investigations, providing recommendations for action, and monitoring compliance. It also highlights the authority of the ICC to summon witnesses, gather evidence, and maintain confidentiality throughout the process.


The process of filing a complaint with the Internal Complaints Committee (ICC)[3] typically involves the following steps:

Informal Resolution: If an individual experiences sexual harassment, they are encouraged to resolve the matter informally by addressing the issue with the alleged harasser or a trusted supervisor, if they feel comfortable doing so.

Formal Complaint: If the issue remains unresolved or the complainant is uncomfortable pursuing an informal resolution, they can file a formal complaint with the ICC. This is done by submitting a written complaint detailing the incident, including relevant dates, times, and any supporting evidence.

Acknowledgment and Investigation: Upon receipt of the complaint, the ICC acknowledges its receipt and initiates an investigation. The ICC conducts interviews, gathers evidence, and ensures confidentiality throughout the process.

Inquiry and Report: The ICC thoroughly investigates the complaint, providing both the complainant and the alleged harasser an opportunity to present their accounts. The ICC then prepares a detailed report of its findings and recommendations.

Action and Follow-up: Based on the ICC's report, the organisation takes appropriate action, which may include disciplinary measures against the harasser. The ICC may also recommend preventive measures, such as awareness programs or policy revisions, to prevent future incidents.


The establishment of ICCs brings numerous benefits in addressing sexual harassment cases within organizations:

a. Empowering victims: ICCs empower victims by providing them with a platform to voice their concerns, ensuring that their grievances are taken seriously and handled sensitively.

b. Reducing victimisation: By providing a formal mechanism for reporting incidents, ICCs help reduce the risk of victimisation or retaliation against complainants, fostering a supportive environment.

c. Promoting awareness and prevention: ICCs actively engage in awareness campaigns, training programs, and workshops, promoting a culture of respect and educating employees about their rights and responsibilities.

d. Ensuring fair and unbiased investigations: The presence of ICCs ensures impartial investigations, eliminating bias and creating a sense of confidence among employees that their complaints will be treated fairly.

e. Preventing legal consequences: Organisations that comply with the POSH Act and establish robust ICCs minimise the risk of legal consequences, including penalties, lawsuits, and reputational damage.

f. Upholding gender equality: ICCs play a crucial role in upholding gender equality by creating an environment where all employees, irrespective of gender, feel safe and respected.


Lack of Awareness and Understanding:

One significant challenge faced by ICCs is the lack of awareness and understanding of the Prevention of Sexual Harassment (POSH) Act and the role of ICCs among employees, employers, and even ICC members themselves. This can lead to misconceptions, inadequate reporting, and insufficient support for victims. Many individuals may not be aware of their rights and the process for filing complaints, which can result in underreporting of incidents. Comprehensive awareness campaigns and training programs are essential to address this challenge and ensure that all stakeholders are well-informed about their rights, responsibilities, and the functioning of ICCs.

Inadequate Resources and Support:

ICCs often face challenges related to insufficient resources and support from organisations. Limited budgets, inadequate staffing, and lack of administrative support can hinder the smooth functioning of ICCs. Without adequate resources, ICCs may struggle to conduct thorough investigations, provide necessary support to complainants, and implement preventive measures effectively. It is crucial for organisations to recognize the importance of ICCs and allocate sufficient resources and extend necessary support to enable them to carry out their responsibilities efficiently.

Bias and Conflicts of Interest:

The presence of bias and conflicts of interest within ICCs can undermine their credibility and impartiality. ICC members may have personal or professional relationships with the parties involved, leading to doubts about their objectivity. This can result in a lack of trust in the complaint resolution process. Ensuring diverse representation within ICCs, appointing independent external members, and establishing mechanisms to address conflicts of interest are crucial to mitigate this challenge and maintain the integrity of the complaint resolution process.

Fear of Retaliation and Lack of Confidentiality:

Victims of sexual harassment may hesitate to come forward and report incidents due to fear of retaliation or lack of confidence in the confidentiality of the process. ICCs must prioritise creating a safe and supportive environment where complainants feel comfortable and assured that their identity and information will be kept confidential. Proactive measures, such as ensuring privacy during investigations, implementing whistleblower protection policies, and educating employees about non-retaliation policies, are essential to address this challenge effectively.

Procedural Delays and Lack of Accountability:

ICCs often face challenges related to procedural delays and lack of accountability, which can undermine the timely resolution of complaints. Delayed investigations, prolonged inquiry processes, and failure to adhere to prescribed timelines can lead to frustration among complainants and impact the credibility of ICCs. It is crucial for ICCs to follow a structured and time-bound approach to handling complaints, ensuring transparency, and maintaining accountability throughout the process.

Limited Authority and Enforcement:

ICCs may face challenges related to limited authority and enforcement mechanisms. While ICCs have the power to investigate complaints and make recommendations, organisations may not always implement the recommended actions or enforce penalties against perpetrators. This can undermine the effectiveness of ICCs and send a message that sexual harassment is not taken seriously. Strengthening the legal framework, establishing mechanisms for monitoring compliance, and imposing strict penalties for non-compliance are essential to address this challenge and reinforce the authority of ICCs.


Internal Complaints Committees are integral to the effective implementation of the POSH Act in addressing workplace sexual harassment. Their role in receiving complaints, conducting investigations, and recommending appropriate action ensures a safer work environment. By highlighting the significance of ICCs, organisations can foster a culture of respect, equality, and inclusivity. It is imperative that ICC members receive adequate training and support to fulfil their responsibilities effectively. By strengthening ICCs and promoting awareness about their functions, we can create workplaces where everyone feels safe, respected, and empowered.

Authored by-

Abhishek Sharma, 1st year , B.A. L.LB

Rajiv Gandhi National Law University, Patiala

[1] Sexual harassment of women at Workplace (Prevention, Prohibition and Redressal) act, 2013 (1970) India Code. Available at: full article [2] What is an internal complaints committee?: ICC members training (2022) MUDS. Available at: full article [3] Internal Complaints Committee(ICC) - women: Department of science & technology: Department of Science & Technology (DST) (no date) Department of Science & Technology (DST). Available at: full article (Accessed: 10 June 2023).

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